References and Sources

The Dartmouth alumni profiles contain transcriptions from cited historical and contemporary sources. Other relevant sources are also listed. When available, obituaries and articles in the Dartmouth Alumni Magazine are reproduced, including a direct link to the item in the magazine’s online archive, which is publicly accessible and searchable. Most of the alumni images are digital copies from Dartmouth Aegis yearbooks, Class books and other alumni materials located in the Rauner Special Collections Library of Dartmouth College. A list of image sources is available.


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Biographical Sources

Adams, Frank William (Class of 1916)
  1. Frank W. Adams Made Assistant U.S. Attorney. (Dec 21, 1929). New Journal and Guide, p. 7.
  2. Obituary. (May 1982). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 74(8), 88.
Adams, George William Jr (Class of 1915)
  1. George W. Adams, Jr. (1922). In A. B. Caldwell (Ed.), History of the American Negro and His Institutions (Vol. 6, pp. 57-58). Atlanta, Ga.: A. B. Caldwell Publishing Company.
  2. In Memoriam. (Mar 1969). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 61(6), 75.
  3. Dr. George William Adams Jr. (1969). Journal of the National Medical Association, 61(2), 204.
Allen, Elijah Henry Jr (Class of 1923)
  1. Journal of the National Medical Association, 53(1), 92.
Arnold, George Francis (Class of 1937)
  1. Dartmouth Openly Accepts Rejected Swarthmore Student. (Sep 21, 1933). Philadelphia Tribune, p. 1.
Barnett, James Parker (Class of 1854)
  1. James Barnett. Edo Historical Chess Ratings. Retrieved from http://www.edochess.ca/players/p215.html
  2. Vietrogoski, Bob. 2011, draft paper, "Expelled for African Blood": Race, Medical Education, and the New York City Draft Riots.
Bell, George (Class of 1893)
  1. Kennedy, Thomas. (2009) A History of Southland College: The Society of Friends and Black Education in Arkansas (pp. 82ff): University of Arkansas Press.
  2. Bell, George Waltham-'83 AB-AM. (1918) Lincoln University Biographical Catalogue (p. 23). Lancaster, PA: Press of the New Era Printing Company.
  3. Williams, Walter L. (1980). Ethnic Relations of African Students in the United States with Black Americans, 1870-1900. Journal of Negro History, 65(3), 240. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2717097
  4. Kousseer, J. Morgan. (1975). A Black Protest tn the "Era of Accommodation:" Documents. Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 34(2), 149-178. Retrieved from http://authors.library.caltech.edu/41098/1/A%20Black%20Protest.pdf
Blackburn, John Randall (Class of 1863)
  1. Goodman, Rebecca, & Brunsman, Barrett J. (2005). Ohio University Trustee, John Blackburn, Born Into Slavery. This Day in Ohio History (p. 107). Cincinnati: Emmis Books.
  2. Baehr, James S. C. (2005). Dartmouth, Race and Slavery : The Education of John Randall Blackburn and Nathan Lord. Rauner Special Collections Library, Dartmouth.
  3. Necrology. (Nov 1937). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 30(2), 27.
Boseman, Benjamin Antony Jr (Class of 1863)
  1. Slawson, Robert. African Americans in Medicine in the Civil War Era. Retrieved from http://www.blackpast.org/perspectives/african-americans-medicine-civil-war-era
  2. Hine, William C. (1982). Dr. Benjamin A. Boseman, Jr.: Charleston’s Black Physician-Politician. In H. N. Rabinowitz (Ed.), Southern Black leaders of the Reconstruction era (pp. 335-352). Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Brooks, Albert Neal Dow (Class of 1919)
  1. In Memoriam. (Jun 1964). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 56(9), 88.
  2. Recorded at Lincoln University, June 7, 1960. (1964). Negro History Bulletin, 27(8), 188.
  3. Wesley, Charles H. (1964). To Us From Falling Hands. Negro History Bulletin, 27(8), 186-187.
Bullock, Matthew Washington (Class of 1904)
  1. Mulligan, Andrew. (Sep 2005). An Ivy League Pioneer : Dartmouth's first African-American football player made his mark on and off the field. Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 98, 36-37.
  2. Matthew Washington Bullock. (1941-1944). In Thomas Yesner (Ed.), Who's Who in Colored America (Vol. 6, p. 92). Brooklyn, New York: Yesner.
  3. Matthew Bullock '04. (5/20/2011). Rauner Library Post. Retrived from http://raunerlibrary.blogspot.com/2011/05/matthew-bullock-04.html
  4. Cromwell, Adelaide M. (2007). Unveiled voices, unvarnished memories : The Cromwell family in slavery and segregation, 1692-1972. Columbia: University of Missouri Press.
  5. Obituary. (Mar 1973). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 65(6), 86-87.
Bullock, William Henry (Class of 1909)
  1. Sports Figure Wm. Bullock Rites Friday. (Feb 1, 1967). Boston Globe, p. 35.
Burrus, James Dallas (Class of 1879)
  1. James Dallas Burrus Collection, 1827-1929 - Fisk University Archives. (2006). Retrieved from http://www.fisk.edu/assets/files/b1/burrus-jamesd.collection1827-1929.pdf
  2. Necrology. (Feb 1929). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 21(4), 257.
  3. Richardson, Joe M. (1965). A Negro Success Story: James Dallas Burrus. The Journal of Negro History, 50(4), 274-282. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2716249
Colson, Cortlandt Matthews (Class of 1929)
  1. Cortlandt M. Colson: Rites Held For VSC Education Professor. (May 4, 1968). New Journal and Guide, p. 8.
Colson, James Major Jr (Class of 1883)
  1. Class Notes. (Jun 1909). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 1(9), 319.
  2. Titcomb, Caldwell. (2001). The Earliest Black Members of Phi Beta Kappa. The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 33, 92-101. doi:10.2307/2678933
  3. The Colson Family. (1946). Negro History Bulletin, 10(1), 3-9, 20-21.
  4. The Colson-Hill Family Papers, Accession #1965-13 , Special Collections and Archives, Johnston Memorial Library, Virginia State University, Petersburg, VA. Retrieved from http://ead.lib.virginia.edu/vivaxtf/view?docId=vsu/vipets00050.xml
Cook, Lenoir Hall (Class of 1929)
  1. 3 Shaw Teachers Get Service Awards. (Jun 25, 1966). The Baltimore Afro-American, p. 20.
  2. Obituary. (Dec 1977). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 70(4), 77.
Cromwell, John Wesley Jr (Class of 1906)
  1. Staff, MSRC, "Cromwell Family" (2015). Manuscript Division. Paper 46. Retrieved from http://dh.howard.edu/finaid_manu/46
  2. (Mar 1972). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine. 64(6), 73.
  3. (Jan 6, 1972). Jet Magazine, 17.
Davis, Charles Twitchell (Class of 1939)
  1. Charles T. Davis papers. (1931-1980). [38 boxes]. Beinecke Rare Book and ManuScript Library. Yale University. http://hdl.handle.net/10079/fa/beinecke.davisc
  2. Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. (2007). Charles Twitchell Davis: The Seminal Scholar of the African-American Literary Tradition. The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education(56), 54-58.
  3. Obituary. (Sep 1981). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 74(1), 72.
  4. Rutledge, Chris. Charles T. Davis Biography - Selected works. Retrieved from http://biography.jrank.org/pages/2398/Davis-Charles-T.html
Draper, Edward Garrison (Class of 1855)
  1. Draper, Charlotte Gilburg. (1860). Sacred to the Memory of Edward Garrison Draper For the Presbyterian Female of Color's Enterprising Society in Baltimore: A Free Will Offering (pp. 78-94). Baltimore, Md.: Frederick A.. Hanzsche.
  2. Bogen, David S. (1985). The Transformation of the Fourteenth Amendment: Reflections from the Admission of Maryland's First Black Lawyers. Maryland Law Review, 44(4), 939-1046. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.law.umaryland.edu/mlr/vol44/iss4/3/
  3. A Lawyer for Liberia. (1858). Maryland Colonization Journal, 9(6), 88-9.
Dunbar, Charles Benjamin (Class of 1853)
  1. Kenney, John A. (1912). The Negro in Medicine (p. 7): Tuskegee Institute Press.
  2. Message of His Excellency President A. W. Gardner to the Legislature - December 12, 1878. (1879). Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States (Vol. 1, p. 711): U.S. Department of State, U.S. Government Printing Office.
Duncan, Charles Andrew Tignor (Class of 1946)
  1. Obituary. (May 8, 2004). The Capital (Annapolis, Md).
Ellis, Roy Alexander (Class of 1922)
  1. (Nov 8, 1985). The Washington Post, p. B4.
Ellis, William Baldwin (Class of 1858)
  1. William B. Ellis letter, 1862. Virtual Exhibits. Retrieved from http://sos.ri.gov/virtualarchives/items/show/693
  2. Glennan, P. Glennan, [P?]. Letter to Sojourner Truth. Post Family Papers Project. Retrieved from https://rbsc.library.rochester.edu/items/show/515
  3. Newmark, Jill L. (Fall 2009). Face to Face with History. Prologue Magazine, 41(3). Retrieved from http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2009/fall/face.html
  4. Redington, Edward Dana. (1907). In W. H. Hodgkins (Ed.), Military Record of the Sons of Dartmouth in the Union Army and Navy 1861-1865 (p. 65). Boston.
  5. Lee, F. A. (2015). Historical Black Men of Dartmouth. [Lecture]. Boston.
Fletcher, Dempsey Rollo (Class of 1847)
  1. (1845). Maryland Colonization Journal, 2(21), 327-328.
  2. James, Winston, & Russwurm, John Brown. (2010). The Struggles of John Brown Russwurm: The Life and Writings of a Pan-Africanist Pioneer, 1799-1851 (p. 292). New York: NYU Press.
Freeman, Charles Wendell (Class of 1923)
  1. Dr. Charles W. Freeman, 80, Dermatologist, Retired Professor at Howard University. (Oct 29, 1980). The Washington Post, p. C8.
  2. Death. (1982). Journal of the National Medical Association, 74(2), 196.
Furniss, William (Class of 1862)
  1. (1972). In Louis R. Harlan, Raymond W. Smock, & Barbara S. Kraft (Eds.), The Booker T. Washington Papers: 1899-1900 (Vol. 5, pp. 464): University of Illinois Press.
  2. Necrology. (Feb 1921). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 13(4), 247-248.
Gibbs, Jonathan Clarkson (Class of 1852)
  1. Gibbs, Jonathan Clarkson(1828–1874) - Minister, politician, educator, Chronology, Serves as Secretary of State, Becomes Superintendent of Public Instruction. Retrieved from http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/4255/Gibbs-Jonathan-Clarkson-1828-1
  2. Gibbs, Jonathan C. (1856). Sermon. Black Abolitonist Archives, 1-19. http://research.udmercy.edu/digital_collections/baa/Gibbs_18062spe.pdf
  3. Hall, Raymond L. (Nov 1986). A Reaffirmation of Mission: The Saga of the Black Experience at Dartmouth. Dartmouth Alumni Magazine 79(3), 35-41.
Giles, Roscoe Conkling Jr (Class of 1940)
  1. Roscoe Giles Jr. Becomes First Negro U. S. Court Reporter Here. (May 23, 1963). Chicago Daily Defender, p. 3.
  2. Obituary. (Apr 1985). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 77(7), 96.
Gilliam, George Torrance (Class of 1841)
  1. Schwarz, Philip J. (1888). The Gilliams' Dilemma. In John Saillant (Ed.), Afro-Virginian History and Culture (pp. 109-142). New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc.
  2. Gilliams of Virginia. Retrieved from http://www.gilliamsofvirginia.org/AfricanAmericanResearch/AfricanAmerican.html
Granger, Carl Victor Crump (Class of 1923)
  1. James, Booker. (May 21, 1960). Dr. Granger Dies in Huntington: Officials Open Probe In Surgeon's Death. The New York Amsterdam News, p. 19.
  2. In Memoriam. (Jul 1960). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 52(10), 50.
Granger, Carl Victor Jr (Class of 1949)
  1. A History of Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation (UDSMR): The Science of Functional Assessment and Outcomes Measurement : Part 1: 1987–2000 (2012). Carl V. Granger (Ed.) About the Editor. Retrieved from http://www.udsmr.org/Documents/A_History_of_UDSMR.pdf
Granger, Leo Yearwood (Class of 1916)
  1. Funeral Held for Dr. L Y. Granger: Newark Man Came From Family With Four Physicians. (Dec 17, 1930). The New York Amsterdam News, p. 3.56
  2. Necrology. (Feb 1931) Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 23(4), p. 281.
Granger, Lester Blackwell (Class of 1918)
  1. Obituary. (Mar 1976). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 68(7), 67-68.
  2. Lester B. Granger (1897 – 1976) - Social Worker, Civil Rights Advocate and Director of the National Urban League. Retrieved from www.naswfoundation.org/pioneers/g/granger.htm
  3. Ruffin II, Herbert G. Granger, Lester Blackwell (1896-1976). Retrieved from http://www.blackpast.org/aah/granger-lester-blackwell-1896-1976
  4. (1936-1970). Lester Blackwell Granger papers. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University.
  5. Hoover, Brett. (2007). Granger Brothers. Celebrating Black History Month. Retrieved from http://ivy50.com/blackhistory/story.aspx?sid=2/5/2007
Granger, Lloyd Maceo (Class of 1920)
  1. Lloyd M. Granger. (1941-1944). In Thomas Yesner (Ed.), Who's Who in Colored America (Vol. 6, pp. 212). Brooklyn, New York: Yesner.
  2. Dr. Lloyd M. Granger. (Feb 26, 1974). Retrieved from http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive/pdf?res=F40A17F93458147B93C4AB1789D85F408785F9
Granger, William Richard Randolph (Class of 1915)
  1. Obituary. (Nov 1973). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 66(2), 70.
  2. Dr. William Granger Jr. Brooklyn Physician, 82. (Sep 21, 1973). The New York Times, p. 44.
Graves, Allen Bouthrod (Class of 1905)
  1. Necrology. (Apr 1957). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 49(7), 86.
  2. Cromwell, Adelaide M. (2007) Unveiled Voices, Unvarnished Memories: The Cromwell Family in Slavery And Segregation, 1692-1972 (p. 169): University of Missouri Press.
  3. Who's Who in '05 - Dr. Allen B. Graves. (Apr 1952). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 44(7), 44-45.
Gray, Jack Ward (Class of 1919)
  1. In Memoriam. (Nov 1944). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 37(2), 61.
  2. Smith, Edythe Meaux. (Apr 19, 1947). Our Town-St. Louis. Pittsburgh Courier, p. 10.
Green, Richard Henry (Class of 1864)
  1. Richard Henry Green. (1880) Obituary Record of Graduates (pp. 268): Yale University.
  2. Schiff, Judith. (May/Jun 2014). The Life of Richard Henry Green : Yale College’s first African American graduate became a Civil War assistant surgeon and a New England country doctor. Yale Alumni Magazine, 77(5). Retrieved from https://yalealumnimagazine.com/articles/3875/the-life-of-richard-henry-green
Griffin, James Madison (Class of 1923)
  1. Necrology. (Oct 1935). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 28(1), 30.
  2. Holmes-Thomas, Ethlynne. (Nov 1965). A Tribute to Leah Elizabeth Griffin. Records of Women’s Medical College of Philadelphia, Registrar 1921-1975.
Griffing, Douglass Carr (Class of 1873)
  1. Lee, F. A. (2015). Historical Black Men of Dartmouth [Lecture]. Boston.
  2. (Dec 3, 1874). Southwestern Advocate, col. F.
Henderson, William Contee (Class of 1923)
  1. (Oct 8, 1938). The Pittsburgh Courier, p. 14.
Howard, Edward Brinkley (Class of 1947)
  1. Norton, Eleanor Holmes. (Dec 7, 2011). Norton Urges D.C. Students to Apply to Service Academies as Two Dunbar Graduates Celebrate 65th Anniversary of Facing off in Army-Navy Game. Retrieved from http://norton.house.gov/media-center/press-releases/norton
Jackson, Albon Louis (Class of 1922)
  1. Finals Rites Tomorrow For Athens Medico. (Apr 23, 1941). Atlanta Daily World, p. 6.
Jeffreys, Arthur Henry (Class of 1904)
  1. Necrology. (Jun 1934). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 26(9), 30.
  2. Freeman, Elliott. (Mar 17, 1934). The Whirling Hub. The Baltimore Afro-American, p. 16.
Jenkins, Samuel Frederick (Class of 1919)
  1. Obituary. (Dec 1987). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 80(4), 82.
  2. Granger, Betty. (Jul 26, 1958). Dr. Samuel F. Jenkins Married To Mrs. Lyn S. Hunt In Quiet Ceremony. New York Amsterdam News, p. 10.
Johnson, Peter Douglas (Class of 1927)
  1. In Memoriam. (Apr 1960). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 52(7), 82.
  2. Dr. Peter D.Johnson is buried in D.C. (Dec 21, 1957). The Baltimore Afro-American, p. 17.
Johnson, Robert Van Ness (Class of 1910)
  1. White, Derrick E. Robert Van Ness Johnson '10. Black Sporting Experience at Dartmouth. Retrieved from http://sites.dartmouth.edu/blacksportingexperience/robert-van-ness-johnson-10/
  2. Necrology. (Apr 1930). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 22(6), 415.
  3. Bond, Gregory. (2008). Jim Crow at Play: Race, Manliness, and the Color Line in American Sports, 1876--1916, p. 485. (Ph.D.), University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Just, Ernest Everett (Class of 1907)
  1. Dr. Ernest Just, Howard U. Professor, Dies : Internationally Known Scientist Buried at Lincoln Cemetery. (Nov 8, 1941). The Chicago Defender, p. 8.
  2. Grantham, Shelby. (Nov 1983). The Greatest Problem in American Biology. Dartmouth Alumni Magazine 76(3), 24-31.
  3. Dr. E. E. Just, Scientist. (Mar 1942). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 34(6), 18-19.
  4. Eckford, Wendel. Just, Ernest Everett (1883-1941). Retrieved from http://blackpast.org/?q=aah/just-ernest-everett-1883-1941
  5. Manning, Kenneth R. (1983). Black Apollo of Science : The Life of Ernest Everett Just. Oxford University Press.
  6. Burns, W. M. (2009). Ernest Everett Just, Johannes Holtfreter, and the origin of certain concepts in embryo morphogenesis. Mol. Reprod. Dev., 76, 912-921. doi:10.1002/mrd.21081
Laing, Daniel Jr (Class of 1854)
  1. Daniel Laing, Jr. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Laing,_Jr.
  2. Nercessian, Nora Nouritza. (2004) Against All Odds - The Legacy of Students of African Descent At Harvard Medical School Before Affirmative Action 1850-1968 (pp. 63-64): Harvard Medical School.
Lane, Charles Edward Jr (Class of 1915)
  1. The Call of Liberia. (Mar 5, 1926). Plain Dealer (Topeka, KS), p. 2.
Lewis, Stephen Johnson (Class of 1944)
  1. Dedication Held On Campus Of Va. Union University. (Jun 17, 1950). Norfolk Journal and Guide, p. A4.
  2. In Memoriam. (Apr 1949). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 41(7), 86.
Magruder, William Francis (Class of 1915)
  1. Necrology. (Jun 1926). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 18(8), 748.
  2. William F. Magruder. (1922). In Arthur Bunyan Caldwell (Ed.), History of the American Negro and His Institutions (Vol. 6, pp. 199-202). Atlanta, Ga: A. B. Caldwell Publishing Co.
Marquess, John Miller (Class of 1904)
  1. Marquess, John Miller. (1915). In Frank Lincoln Mather (Ed.), Who's Who of the Colored Race (Vol. 1, pp. 184). Chicago: F. L. Mather.
  2. Cromwell, Adelaide M. (2007). Unveiled Voices, Unvarnished Memories : The Cromwell family in slavery and segregation, 1692-1972 (p. 169). Columbia: University of Missouri Press.
  3. Necrology. (Jun 1936). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 28(9), 29.
  4. John Miller Marquess. (1919). In Clement Richardson (Ed.), The National Cyclopedia of the Colored Race (Vol. 1, pp. 283-284). Montgomery, Ala.: National Publishing Company, Inc.
Marshall, Charles Herbert Jr (Class of 1920)
  1. Lesko, Kathleen M., Babb, Valerie, & Gibbs, Carroll R. (1991) Black Georgetown Remembered: A History of Its Black Community From the Founding of "The Town of George" in 1751 to the Present Day (p. 51): Georgetown University Press.
Martin, James Ernest Jr (Class of 1920)
  1. Bury Noted W. Virginia Dentist. (Jan 26, 1974). New York Amsterdam News, p. A8.
  2. White, Derrick E. Black Sporting Experience at Dartmouth. Retrieved from http://sites.dartmouth.edu/blacksportingexperience/james-martin-20/
McGill, Samuel (Class of 1839)
  1. The Late Dr. McGill. (1871). The African Repository, 47(1), 287.
  2. Diemer, Andrew. The Quaker and the Colonist - Moses Sheppard, Samuel Ford McGill, and Transatlantic Antislavery across the Color Line. In Brycchan Carey & Geoffrey Plank (Eds.), Quakers and Abolition (pp. 135-148). Champaign, IL, USA: University of Illinois Press. Champaign, IL, USA.
  3. Sims, J. L., Seymour, G. L., & Anderson, B. J. K. (2003) African-American Exploration in West Africa: Four Nineteenth-Century Diaries (p. 370): Indiana University Press.
  4. Forbush, Bliss. (1988). The Price of Freedom. Friends Journal, 34(9), 28-29.
  5. Campbell, Penelope. (Summer 1970). Medical Education for an African Colonist. Maryland Historical Magazine, 130-137.
McGuire, Robert Grayson Jr (Class of 1932)
  1. Smith, J. Y. (Mar 26, 1982). Civic Leader, Funeral Home Head R.G. McGuire Dies. The Washington Post, p. B12.
  2. Obituary. (Jun 1982). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 74(9), 95-96.
Mills, Clarence Harvey (Class of 1918)
  1. In Memoriam. (Jul 1950). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 42(10), 51-52.
  2. Dr. Clarence H. Mills, Pioneer Scholar, Dies. (Apr 29, 1950). New Journal and Guide (Norfolk, Va.), p. 20.
Mitchell, Edward (Class of 1828)
  1. Obituary. Rev. Edward Mitchell. (Mar 1872). Stanstead Journal (Rock Island, Québec).
  2. Koren, Ore. Student Dissidence in the 1820s. Dartmouth 1820s-1850s. Retrieved from http://dartmouth1850s.wordpress.com/student-dissidence-in-the-1820s/
  3. Hall, Raymond L. (Nov 1986). A Reaffirmation of Mission: The Saga of the Black Experience at Dartmouth. Dartmouth Alumni Magazine 79(3), 35-41.
  4. Cathcart, William, & Everts, L. H. (1883). Edward Mitchell The Baptist Encyclopaedia (p. 808). Philadelphia, Pa.
Montgomery, Wilder Percival (Class of 1906)
  1. Necrology. (Nov 1931). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 24(2), 126-127.
  2. Cromwell, Adelaide M. (2007). Unveiled Voices, Unvarnished Memories : The Cromwell family in slavery and segregation, 1692-1972 (p. 169). Columbia: University of Missouri Press.
Montgomery, Wilder Percival Jr (Class of 1931)
  1. Obituary. (May 1996). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 88(8), 91.
  2. Obituary: Wilder Montgomery Dies at 85; Physician, Howard U. Professor. (Nov 4, 1995). The Washington Post, p. B7.
Montgomery, Winfield Scott (Class of 1878)
  1. Dr. Montgomery Dead at Home Here: Former School Official Ill Only Brief Time; Teacher for 47 Years. (12 Sep 1928). The Washington Post, p. 17.
  2. Wormley, G. Smith. (1932). Educators of the First Half Century of Public Schools of the District of Columbia. The Journal of Negro History, 17(2), 124-140. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2714463
  3. Necrology. (Nov 1928). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 21(1), 41.
Moore, Hilary John (Class of 1883)
  1. Departure for Liberia. (1883). The African Repository and Colonial Journal, 59(4), 122.
Paul, Thomas JR (Class of 1841)
  1. MacLam, Helen, & Fisken, Patricia B. (1979). Black Students at Dartmouth: The Early Years. Dartmouth College Library Bulletin, 20(1).
  2. Speech of Thomas Paul; a colored student of Dartmouth College; delivered before the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society; January 27th; 1841; in the Representatives' Hall; Boston. Retrieved from http://www.primaryresearch.org/bh/liberator/g_show.php?file=270.jpg&id=270
  3. Thomas Paul. Canaan Historical Society. Retrieved from http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~nhchs/Preservation/People/Thomas_Paul.html
  4. Paul, Susan. (1835). In Lois Brown (Ed.), Memoir of James Jackson: The Attentive and Obedient Scholar, Who Died in Boston, October 31, 1833, Aged Six Years and Eleven Months (pp. 8-11): Harvard University Press.
Payne, Howard M (Class of 1928)
  1. In Memoriam. (Nov 1961). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 54(2), 94.
  2. Dr. Payne, Specialist In TB, Dead. (Sep 14, 1961). The Washington Post, Times Herald, p. D5.
Payne, John Condit Jr (Class of 1929)
  1. Dr. John Condit Payne. (1974). J Natl Med Assoc., 66(1), 93.
  2. John C. Payne Dies. (June 15, 1972). Jet Magazine, 49.
  3. Obituary. (Jan 1973). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 65(4), 78.
Poindexter, Hildrus Augustus (Class of 1927)
  1. Cobb, William Montague. (1973). Hildrus Augustus Poindexter, M.D., M.P.H., Ph.D., D.Sc., 1901-. J Natl Med Assoc., 65(3), 243-247.
  2. Public Health Director. (Jan 1967). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 59(4), 26-27.
  3. Ex-Medical Director of PHS Dr. Hildrus Poindexter Dies. (Apr 25, 1987). The Washington Post, p. C6.
  4. Poindexter, H. A. (1973). My World of Reality (An Autobiography). Balamp Pub, Detroit.
Pollard, Leslie Lawrence (Class of 1912)
  1. Leslie Pollard Famous Athlete Asphyxiated: Former Chicago Boy Noted as the Best All-Around Athlete of His Day Dies in Brooklyn From Carbon monoxide Gas Poisoning. (May 1, 1915). The Chicago Defender, p. 4.
  2. Polard, Leslie Lawrence. (1915). In Frank Lincoln Mather (Ed.), Who's Who of the Colored Race (Vol. 1, pp. 220). Chicago: F. L. Mather.
Quarles, Benjamin Harrison (Class of 1914)
  1. B. H. Quarles, Retired Pharmacist. (Apr 19, 1970). The Washington Post, Times Herald, p. D11.
Rambeau, Theodore Arthur (Class of 1926)
  1. Laug, Cindy. Early Years of Julianne Rambeau. Retrieved from History - Grand Rapids.org website: http://www.historygrandrapids.org/article/4568/early-years-of-julianne-rambea
Reed, Dwight Thornton (Class of 1909)
  1. (April 24, 1926). The St. Paul Echo (St. Paul-Minneapolis, Minnesota), p. 1.
  2. In Memoriam. (Dec 1952). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 45(3), 110.
Rice, George (Class of 1869)
  1. (Feb 26, 1878). Lowell Daily Citizen and News, p. 2.
  2. Papers of Dr. George Rice. Retrieved from http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/rd/88c6049e-7854-4af5-90fa-08c50ace5392
  3. Perkins, L. M. (1997). The African American Female Elite: Early History of African American Women in the Seven Sister Colleges. Harvard Ed Rev, 67, 718-756.
  4. Cohen, Edward H. (1991). W.E. Henley's 'A Student': A Black Medical Student at Edinburgh in the Early 1870s. University of Edinburgh Journal, 35(2), 94-97.
  5. Necrology. (Apr 1935). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 27(7), 23.
Roberts, Henry Jenkins (Class of 1846)
  1. Tyler-McGraw, Marie. Roberts Family. Retrieved from Virginia Emigrants to Liberia website: http://www.vcdh.virginia.edu/liberia/index.php?page=Stories&section=The%20Roberts%20Family
  2. Tazewell, C. W. (1992). The Father of Liberia. In C. W. Tazewell (Ed.), Virginia's Ninth President: Joseph Jenkins Roberts : An anthology on President Joseph Jenkins Roberts (1809-1876) with information on Liberia and the American Colonization Society. Virginia Beach, VA: W. S. Dawson Co.
Robinson, Remus Grant (Class of 1897)
  1. Culp, Daniel Wallace. (1902) Twentieth Century Negro Literature: Or, A Cyclopedia of Thought on the Vital Topics Relating to the American Negro (p. 302). Naperville, Ill: J.L. Nichols & Co.
  2. Necrology. (May 1939). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 31(8), 74.
Roudanez, Louis Charles (Class of 1857)
  1. Rayford Logan and Michael R. Winston, eds., Dictionary of American Negro Biography (New York: W.W. Norton, 1982)
  2. Micklin, Anna T. Roudanez, Louis Charles (1823-1890). Retrieved from http://www.blackpast.org/?q=aah/roudanez-louis-charles-1823-1890
  3. Dessens, Nathalie. (2008). Louis Charles Roudanez, a Creole of Color of Saint-Domingue Descent: Atlantic Reinterpretations of Nineteenth-Century New Orleans. South Atlantic Review, 73(2), 26-38. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp
  4. Photo of Dr. Louis C.. Roudanez (ca. 1858) reproduced with the permission of Mark Charles Roudané. Retrieved from his website http://www.roudanez.com
  5. Roudané, Mark Charles. (2014). The New Orleans Tribune: An Introduction to America's First Black Daily Newspaper.
Roudanez, Louis Charles II (Class of 1890)
  1. Photo of Dr. Louis C.. Roudanez II reproduced with the permission of Mark Charles Roudané. The original, uncropped photo is online: http://www.roudanez.com
Saunders, Prince (Class of 1808)
  1. Wang, Tabitha C. Saunders, Prince (1775–1839). Retrieved from http://www.blackpast.org/?q=aah/prince-saunders-1775-1839
  2. White, Arthur O. (1975). Prince Saunders: An Instance of Social Mobility Among Antebellum New England Blacks. The Journal of Negro History, 60(4), 526-535.
  3. Horton, James O., & Horton, Lois E. (1996). In Hope of Liberty : Culture, Community and Protest Among Northern Free Blacks, 1700-1860. USA: Oxford University Press.
  4. Dain, Bruce R. (2009). A Hideous Monster of the Mind (pp. 93-98): Harvard University Press.
Selden, Theodore Milton (Class of 1921)
  1. Norfolk Man Killed in Wreck: Milton Selden Victim of Rail Road Accident. (Jul 8, 1922). New Journal and Guide, p. 1.
  2. Penn Law pays tribute to Theodore Selden, Class of 1924 student who died in tragic train wreck. (Feb 2015). Retrieved from https://www.law.upenn.edu/live/news/5331-penn-law-pays-tribute-to-theodore-selden-class-of#.Vo0o3t-rSZ0
Smith, Daniel Brown (Class of 1909)
  1. Death of Daniel B. Smith. (Mar 23, 1907). St. Louis Palladium, p. 4.
Smith, George Francis (Class of 1898)
  1. (1900). The Bulletin of Atlanta University, 109, 2. Retrieved from http://contentdm.auctr.edu/cdm/compoundobject/collection/rwwl/id/1082/rec/22.
  2. (1900). Dartmouth Necrology: 1899-1900 -- Including Deaths Not Previously Reported (p. 38). Dartmouth Press, Hanover, N.H.
Snowden, Isaac Humphrey (Class of 1851)
  1. Thompson, Patricia J. (2008). Snowden, Isaac Humphrey. In Henry Louis Gates Jr. & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham (Eds.), African American National Biography. New York. Retrieved from http://www.oxfordaasc.com/article/opr/t0001/e4748
Spears, William Kebren (Class of 1937)
  1. Obituary, William K. Spears, Engineer, Newspaper Employee. (Feb 21, 2007). The Washington Post.
Stubbs, Frederick Douglass (Class of 1927)
  1. Dr. F. D. Stubbs, Noted Chest Specialist, Dies. (Feb 15, 1947). Baltimore Afro-American, p. 1.
  2. Stubbs, Frederick. (Mar 3, 1926). Letter from Alpha Phi Alpha, Alpha Gamma Chapter to W. E. B. Du Bois. W. E. B. Du Bois Papers (MS 312). Special Collections and University Archives, University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries. Retrieved from http://credo.library.umass.edu/view/full/mums312-b032-i031
  3. In Memoriam. (Jan 1948). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 40(4), 78.
Thorne, John Tully (Class of 1897)
  1. Necrology. (Jul 1941). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 33(10), 46.
  2. Class secretary correspondence in alumnus record file, Rauner Special Collections Library, Dartmouth College.
Waring, Champion James (Class of 1883)
  1. Necrology. (Oct 1933). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 26(1), 31.
  2. Hold Funeral Service for Atty. Waring. (Oct 22, 1932). The Chicago Defender, p. 2.
Washington, Augustus (Class of 1847)
  1. Michaelides, Lee. (June 1999). John Brown's Photographer. Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 91(9), 50-51.
  2. Dunn, D. Elwood, Beyan, Amost J., & Burrowes, Carl Patrick. (2001). Washington, Augustus (1820-1875). In Jon Woronoff (Ed.), Historical Dictionary of Liberia (2nd ed., pp. 354-355). Lanham, Maryland and London: The Scarecrow Press, Inc.
  3. Hall, Raymond L. (Nov 1986). A Reaffirmation of Mission?: The Saga of the Black Experience at Dartmouth. Dartmouth Alumni Magazine 79(3), 38.
  4. National Portrait Gallery : A Durable Memento: Portraits by Augustus Washington, African American Daguerrotypist. Retrieved from http://www.npg.si.edu/exh/awash/awintro.htm
  5. African Colonization–By a Man of Color Augustus Washington, July 03, 1851. Retrieved from http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/african-colonization-by-a-man-of-color/
Watts, Caleb (Class of 1775)
  1. Wilder, Craig Steven. (2013). Ebony and Ivy: Race, Slavery, and the Troubled History of America's Universities (p. 168). USA: Bloomsbury Press.
  2. Chase, Frederick. (1913). In John K. Lord (Ed.), A History of Dartmouth College and the Town of Hanover, New Hampshire (p. 300).
  3. Zug, James. (Jan 2007). The Slaves of Dartmouth. Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 99(3), 40-45,100.
Weisiger, Bradford Benjamin (Class of 1925)
  1. Wilson, W. Rollo. (Oct 18, 1924). Eastern Snapshots. Pittsburgh Courier, p. 7.
Wharton, George Murdock (Class of 1940)
  1. Trust Fund Planned For Wharton Children. (Dec 15, 1966). Los Angeles Sentinel, p. A2.
Wharton, Ulysses Samuel Jr (Class of 1938)
  1. Obituary. (Jun 1985). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 77(9), 121.
  2. Navy Doctor, U. S. Navy Photo. (Jan 13, 1945). New Journal and Guide (Norfolk), p. 1.
Wilder, Charles McDuffy (Class of 1915)
  1. Hold Last Rites for Howard 'Med' Prof. (Dec 14, 1935). The Pittsburgh Courier, p. A2.
Wilder, Charles McDuffy Jr (Class of 1944)
  1. In Memoriam. (Apr 1949). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 41(7), 86.
  2. Race Students at Dartmouth. (Oct 2, 1943). The Pittsburgh Courier, p. 5.
  3. Book Review: A Look at Black Experience in Contemporary Times. (Nov 14, 1980). Philadelphia Tribune, p. A5.
Wilkinson, Robert Shaw (Class of 1924)
  1. Cobb, William Montague. (1985). In Memoriam: Robert Shaw Wilkinson, MD, FACS 1899-1994. Journal of the National Medical Association, 77(2), 148-149.
  2. Obituary. (Jan/Feb 1985). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 77(5), 92.
  3. Police Surgeon Is Appointed. (Dec 16, 1952). The New York Times, p. 24.
Williams, Pelleman (Class of 1845)
  1. Piper, Charles, & Piper, Judy. (2010). A Passport to History. The Jazz Archivist, 23, 30-36.
  2. Morris, Robert C. (1981) Reading, 'Riting, and Reconstruction: The Education of Freedmen in the South, 1861-1870 (p. 23). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  3. Pelleman M. Williams v. The City of New Orleans. (Jul 3, 2010). Retrieved from Earl K. Long Library, The University of New Orleans http://libweb.uno.edu/jspui/handle/123456789/17742
Williams, Vivian Leonard (Class of 1923)
  1. V. Leonard Williams. (1942). In Thomas Yesner (Ed.), Who's Who in Colored America (Sixth ed., pp. 570). Brooklyn, New York.
  2. Obituary of V. Leonard Williams. (1963). New York State Journal of Medicine, 63(19-24), 3152.
  3. Class Notes '23. (Mar 1951). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 43(6), 60.
Wood, Thornton Holman (Class of 1919)
  1. Dr. Thornton Wood was longtime Harlem physician. (Feb 15, 1992). New York Amsterdam News, p. 33.
  2. Obituary. (Jun 1992). Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 84(9), 71.

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Selected General References

Antoine, Tai. Black Greens. Retrieved from Rauner Special Collections Library of Dartmouth College. http://www.dartmouth.edu/~library/rauner/blackgreens/

Baehr, James S. C. (2005). Dartmouth, Race and Slavery : The Education of John Randall Blackburn and Nathan Lord. Rauner Special Collections Library, Dartmouth.

Bartlett, Samuel Colcord. (1883). Address of President S. C. Bartlett. The American Missionary, 37, 383-385. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=C6QPAAAAIAAJ

Brown, Richard D. (1988). 'Not only extreme poverty, but the worst kind of orphanage': Lemuel Haynes and the Boundaries Of Racial Tolerance On The Yankee Frontier, 1770-1820. The New England Quarterly, 61(4), 510-518.

Brown, Samuel Gilman. (1870). An Historical Discourse Delivered Before the Alumni of Dartmouth College, July 21, 1869, One Hundred Years After the Founding of that Institution. Hanover, N.H.: Dartmouth Press.

Calloway, Colin G. (2010). The Indian History of an American Institution: Native Americans and Dartmouth: Dartmouth College Press.

Chapman, George T. (1867). Sketches of the Alumni of Dartmouth College: From the First Graduation in 1771 to the Present Time, with a Brief History of the Institution. Cambridge, Mass.: Riverside Press.

Chase, Frederick. (1891). A History of Dartmouth College and the Town of Hanover, New Hampshire. Cambridge: John Wilson and Son.

Cheek, William F., & Cheek, Aimee Lee. (1996). John Mercer Langston and the Fight for Black Freedom, 1829-65. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Contee, Clarence. (1973). History Series: Edward Jones, First Black College Graduate. The Baltimore Afro-American. Retrieved from https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=2211&dat=19730811&id=ejAmAAAAIBAJ&sjid=ef4FAAAAIBAJ&pg=2573,780616&hl=en

Crosby, Alpheus Benning. (1872). A Eulogy Commemorative of the Life and Character of Nathan Lord, D.D., LL. D., President of Dartmouth College Delivered before the Association of the Alumni of Dartmouth College, at the Annual Commencement, June 1872. Hanover, N.H.: J. B. Parker.

Davis, Paul Daniel. (1943). 107 Race Students Have Attended Dartmouth College. The Pittsburgh Courier, 5.

Ernest, John. (2011). A Nation Within a Nation: Organizing African-American Communities Before the Civil War. Summit, Pa.: Ivan R. Dee.

Fernald, Jody R. (2007). Slavery in New Hampshire: Profitable Godliness to Racial Consciousness. University of New Hampshire.

Ferrin, Chester E. (1877). Rev. Alexander L. Twilight. In Abby Maria Hemenway (Ed.), The Vermont Historical Gazetteer: A Magazine, Embracing a History of Each Town, Civil, Ecclesiastical, Biographical and Military (Vol. 3, pp. 101-104). Claremont, N.H.: The Claremont Manufacturing Company.

Grant, Conor. (2014, 3/20/2014). Revisiting Middlebury's Racial History. The Middlebury Campus, 112, 5.

Hall, Raymond L. (Nov 1986). A Reaffirmation of Mission: The Saga of the Black Experience at Dartmouth. Dartmouth Alumni Magazine 79(3), 35-41.

Irvine, Russell W, & Dunkerton, Donna Zani. (1998). The Noyes Academy, 1834-35: The Road to the Oberlin Collegiate Institute and the Higher education of African-Americans in the Nineteenth Century. Western Journal of Black Studies, 22(4), 260-276.

James, Winston. (2010). The Struggles of John Brown Russwurm: The Life and Writings of a Pan-Africanist Pioneer, 1799-1851. New York: NYU Press.

JBHE Chronology of Major Landmarks in the Progress of African Americans in Higher Education. (Autumn 2006). The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 53, 77-88.

Koren, Ore. (2010). Student Dissidence in the 1820s. Dartmouth 1820s-1850s. Retrieved from http://dartmouth1850s.wordpress.com/student-dissidence-in-the-1820s/

Lest We Forget - Dartmouth Slavery Project. (2014). Retrieved from https://dartmouthslaveryproject.wordpress.com/

Lord, John King, & Chase, Frederick. (1913). A History of Dartmouth College, 1815-1909. Concord, N. H.: The Rumford Press.

Mason, Clifton, Richardson, Jeffrey, & Harris, Donna. (1878). John Newton Templeton, A Tribute, 1828-1878. Retrieved from http://www.seorf.ohiou.edu/xx057/john_newton_templeton.htm

Nell, William Cooper. (1855). The Colored Patriots of the American Revolution: With Sketches of Several Distinguished Colored Persons: to which is Added a Brief Survey of the Condition and Prospects of Colored Americans. Boston: Robert F. Wallcut.

Nichols, Richard M. (1976). The Black Middle Class and the Black Dartmouth Graduate. Senior Fellowship Essay. Dartmouth College.

Presidents of Dartmouth, Northwestern, Yale and Harvard. (Aug 1831). The Northern College and the Negro Student. The Crisis, 40(3), 263-264.

Putnam, Constance E. (2004). The Science We Have Loved and Taught: Dartmouth Medical School's First Two Centuries University Press of New England.

Slater, Robert Bruce. (1994). The Blacks Who First Entered the World of White Higher Education. Journal of Blacks in Higher Education(4), 47-56.

Smith, Baxter Perry. (1878). The History of Dartmouth College. Boston: Boston, Houghton, Osgood and Company.

White, Derrick E. Black Sporting Experience at Dartmouth. Retrieved from http://sites.dartmouth.edu/blacksportingexperience/

Wilder, Craig Steven. (2013). Ebony and Ivy: Race, Slavery, and the Troubled History of America's Universities. USA: Bloomsbury Press.

Zug, James. (Jan 2007). The Slaves of Dartmouth. Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 99(3), 40-45,100.

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